|Previous Prices||27 Apr 2017||26 Apr 2017|
|ICCO daily price (SDRs/tonne)||1389.30||1393.74|
|ICCO daily price (US$/tonne)||1902.08||1907.24|
|London futures (£ sterling/tonne)||1486.00||1495.00|
|New York futures (US$/tonne)||1878.00||1885.33|
ICCO International Workshop on Cocoa Certification
Cocoa Trader, Ghana Cocoa Board / Cocoa Marketing Company
Edem Amegashie-Duvon is a Cocoa Trader with the Ghana Cocoa Board / Cocoa Marketing Company, with many years of experience in both commercial and policy aspects of the cocoa supply chain. He is the current Chairman of the subcommittee of Market Experts of the Alliance of Cocoa Producing Countries and also chaired COPAL’s first workshop on Cocoa Certification in Brasilia, Brazil in 2011.
He has represented the government of Ghana for nearly a decade at different international commodity bodies including the ICCO, ICO, COPAL, UNCTAD etc., and has played a key role in the preparation of the ICCO Roundtable on Sustainable Cocoa Economy (RSCE 1 & 2). He is a cocoa quality and technical arbitrator of the FCC, having previously served on the Council and the Rules and Regulations Committee of the Federation for 5 years.
Edem holds a Master of Business degree in International Business from Grenoble Business School in France and also holds Executive Management and Law qualifications from Judge Business School, University of Cambridge and Birkbeck College, University of London respectively.
Dr. Jean-Marc Anga
Executive Director, International Cocoa Organization
A national from Côte d’Ivoire in West Africa, Dr. Jean-Marc Anga has over 20 years’ experience in agricultural commodity development, seventeen of which have been acquired in the International Cocoa Organization. In consequence, Dr. Anga has become a world expert on cocoa, a commodity that plays a vital role in the economies of several African countries, particularly for poverty alleviation in rural communities. Over the years, he has developed a substantial knowledge and understanding of African socio-economic affairs coupled with a keen global perspective on sustainable commodity development.
Dr. Anga started his career in his home country in the 1980s, initially working as Project Analyst in the Ministry of Agriculture of Côte d’Ivoire, before rising to become Deputy National Coordinator in the Plant Protection Department. His international career began after completing his postgraduate studies in the United Kingdom when, in February 1996, he was offered the post of Project Officer in the International Cocoa Organization. Promotion to the position of Project Manager followed swiftly, and in 2005, Dr. Anga rose to the post of Director of the Economics and Statistics Division of ICCO.
At its 81st regular session in March 2010, the exporting and importing Members of the International Cocoa Council appointed Dr. Anga to the position of Executive Director a.i. of the International Cocoa Organization, a role which he assumed on 1 October 2010. Following this, at its 86th regular session in September 2012, the Members of the International Cocoa Council unanimously elected Dr. Anga to the position of Executive Director of the International Cocoa Organization, a role which he assumed on 1 October 2012.
Dr. Anga holds a Ph.D. in Agricultural Science from Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of London and a Master of Business Administration (MBA) from Westminster University, in London.
Cocoa Development Manager, Mondelēz International (ex-Kraft foods)
Born in Côte d’Ivoire, and was working at Fairtrade International as the Global Cocoa Manager before joining Kraft Foods, now Mondelēz International. Alex has been involved in several discussions and projects to develop a more sustainable cocoa sector the past 10 years. Before joining Fairtrade, he gained significant experience in the rural development sector in Africa through his work for GTZ (now GIZ) International Services, West Africa, as an International rural development Expert.
He joined the sustainability team within Kraft Foods, now Mondelēz International, as Cocoa program development focus on developing sustainability program in Côte d’Ivoire. Alex also participated on behalf of Mondelēz International in several key industry association task force or committees
Presentation message: Our vision is thriving cocoa communities that support sustainable supply. We believe, in order to achieve this, that we need to support the delivery of a step change in farmer productivity and returns at farm level, combined with community development work to encourage the next generation to become cocoa farmers.
Cocoa CR&S Manager, Côte d'Ivoire, Outspan Ivoire / Olam International
Andrew is the CR&S Manager for Outspan Ivoire, a subsidiary of Olam International Ltd and licensed cocoa and coffee exporter based in Cote d’Ivoire. He manages the cocoa sustainability and certification programs in Cote d’Ivoire with oversight of Olam’s cocoa certification programs in West Africa.
He is treasurer and a member of Executive Committee of GEPEX, the Ivorian cocoa and coffee Exporters Association.
Andrew has also served on the boards of the London Cocoa Terminal Association and Cocoa Association of London, prior to the merger with the Federation of Cocoa Commerce.
Andrew has 30 years' experience in cocoa, joining J.H. Rayner Ltd in 1983, and has been with Olam for six years. He graduated with a Combined Honours degree in Business Administration and French from the University of Aston in Birmingham, England.
Cocoa Sustainability Director, Certification and Community Development, Mars Global Chocolate
Alastair Child is Cocoa Sustainability Director, Certification and Community Development at Mars Global Chocolate.
Child runs a team across sustainability, sourcing, public affairs and communications, to ensure cocoa certification evolves towards mainstream scale across the industry by 2020 and delivers impact on farmers’ livelihoods and sustainability of production.
In addition, Child is responsible for Community Development within Mars Sustainable Cocoa Initiative, working to attract the next generation of educated cocoa farmers through education, protective environments for children and raising the overall quality of life in cocoa growing areas.
Advisor, Ministry of Agriculture, Ecuador / Advisor, Ecuadorian Coordinating Association of Fine Cocoa Producers (ACEPROCACAO)
With 20 years experience working in local development projects related to Smallholders Cocoa Producers' Cooperatives and Organizations, Mr. Freire has worked with iconic institutions and Ecuador's most important projects of the last 20 years.
He is a Permanent Member of the National Fine Cocoa Technical Committee and Permanent Member of the Chocolate Academy of Ecuador, and has been Keynote Speaker at various international events in Ecuador and other countries, including Chocolatino, Chocofest, Success Alliance Conference.
His professional life has developed in Maquita Cushunchic Comercializando Como Hermanos (MCCH), SNV, GTZ, PRODERUES (Proyecto de Desarollo Rural Provincia de Esmeraldas), Agricultural Ministry & UE, Alliance Success Program (ACDI / VOCA - USDA), author and consultant "National Fine Cocoa Reactivation Program" (Ecuador Agriculture Ministry); author of several Cocoa Marketing Manuals (GIZ - CAMAREN) and Technical Crop Development Manual (PAPÁCACAO - Nestlé) and he regularly publishes articles in various magazines and publications in Ecuador.
Since January 2010, he has been with the Fine National Cocoa Producers Organization and has thrived and driven the creation and development of the “Fine National Cocoa Law” and the formation of the National Cocoa Producer’s Association ACEPROCACAO (Asociación Coordinadora Ecuatoriana de Productores de Cacao Nacional Fino de Aroma).
Juan (Jaime) Gomez
The National Confederation of Dominican Cocoa Farmers (CONACADO)
The National Confederation of Dominican Cocoa Farmers (CONACADO) is a farmer-owned NGO with more than 9,500 members organized into seven processing centres (formerly bloques, now Regional Branches) and 160 farmer associations (covering 42,000 hectares), with about one quarter of the country’s 45,000 cocoa producers. They sell 25% of cocoa produced in the DR, of which 40% is Fairtrade, Rainforest Alliance, UTZ, Biosuisse, and mostly organic.
Juan Gomez is a co-founder of CONACADO. He is an expert in cocoa processing and association development, with over 29 years of experience working in the cocoa industry in the Dominican Republic, Central and South America. He designed cocoa-processing equipment, established improved breeds of cocoa for export, and founded over 30 cocoa-producer associations with more than 1,200 members, including three CONACADO system cooperatives. Juan played a critical role in developing the organic market for cocoa produced in Dominican Republic. In addition, he worked for more than 12 years for the Dominican Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Cocoa, coordinating a genetic improvement project for national seed banks. Juan owns a cocoa farm where he has developed sixteen unique cocoa genetic types (clones).
In 2010, Juan became a member of an international management team which is developing a Cocoa Cooperative development project in Peru, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic, supported by USAID.
He holds a Master of Science Degree in Environmental Science from the University of Granada, Spain. He has a Bachelor Degree in Biochemistry from the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo and a Bachelor Degree in Agronomy from the Agricultural College of San Ignacio de Loyola in the Dominican Republic.
Certification Capacity Enhancement (CCE) Coordinator
Ulrich Helberg, father of two children, holds a BSc in International Agricultural Development and an MSc in Environmental Protection, both from University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany. He has worked in development cooperation projects in Zambia, Tanzania, Mali and Ghana for over nine years and, as a freelance consultant, in about 30 countries worldwide for over 15 years. He is dedicated to the development of sustainable agricultural value chains, linking producers with markets. His focus has been on tree crops, such as cocoa, coffee and tea as well as on medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs).
From 2010 until February 2013 Ulrich worked as GIZ project manager of the Development Partnership Certification Capacity Enhancement (CCE), which focuses on the development and rollout of training materials for sustainable cocoa production. CCE is implemented in Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria. Since March 2013 Ulrich has been working again as a freelance consultant, while continuing with CCE as its coordinator.
Sustainability and Rural Development Expert, ADM Cocoa
Michiel Hendriksz currently serves as Director of Sustainability. He is an officer of the World Cocoa Foundation’s Executive Committee, Steering Committee member of WCF/BMGF’s Cocoa Livelihoods Program and African Cocoa Initiative (ACI). He currently also serves as vice-chairman of the Joint Committee on Sustainability of the European Cocoa Association, Federation of Cocoa Commerce, Caobisco and WCF, and as (private sector) consultative board member at ICCO and Advisory Panel member of the UNFSS (UN Forum for Sustainability Standards).
Mr. Hendriksz has fulfilled several commercial roles such as the Head for Cocoa Trading & Sourcing West-Africa. In his current role, he develops and manages cocoa sustainability programmes at origin and relationships covering all major multinationals, regional and local companies in the cocoa and confectionery industry.
Mr. Hendriksz has a B.Sc. in Tropical Agronomy and International Trade (Netherlands) and an M.Sc. (Agri-Business) at Cranfield University (England). He is fluent in Dutch, German, Spanish, French, Italian and English.
Mr. Hendriksz has worked in cocoa, coffee, and rubber projects in Indonesia as early as 1985 and has built subsequently an extensive experience in rural development in West Africa.
Mr. Hendriksz is engaged in high social impact projects on gender and women's empowerment, education & vocational training, finance & bankability and the use of mobile ICT solutions in rural areas. The main focus of his work is on the majority of independent but not yet organized farmers in West Africa and Indonesia.
Researcher, Südwind Institute
Friedel Hütz‐Adams has been working as a researcher at SÜDWIND Institute since 1993.
He has published various studies on different aspects of the value chain of cocoa, and has organized multi‐stakeholder conferences on cocoa in April 2011 and June 2012 (in collaboration with GIZ) to discuss how to get all German stakeholders in the cocoa and chocolate business involved in the challenge to improve the sustainability of cocoa production.
He is a founding member of VOICE, a network of European NGOs working on cocoa, and a member of the Steering Committee of the German Initiative on Sustainable Cocoa, a roundtable of more than 70 companies, NGOs, unions, research institutions and standard-setting bodies.
Sustainable Markets and Trade, Wageningen UR, Agricultural Economics Institute (LEI)
Verina Ingram is social scientist focusing on the interactions between people and natural resources with 20 years of working experience. She currently focuses on tropical areas and commodities such as timber, cocoa, coffee, cotton and forest products, looking at the impacts on sustainability and livelihoods and how improvements can be made through governance, regulation, collective and market actions such as corporate social responsibility. She is finalizing her PhD on the impacts of governance arrangements on the sustainability of forest value chains in the Congo Basin.
Prior to joining the Agricultural Economics Institute (LEI) of Wageningen UR in 2011, she was Livelihoods team coordinator with the Centre for International Forest Research, Central Africa, with SNV building capacities for sustainable natural resource use and agriculture in Cameroon, and with Royal Haskoning with business, communities, governments and NGOs in Africa, Europe and Asia on international, multi-disciplinary projects.
A graduate of the Paris Graduate School of Business, Edmond has a Ph.D in Political Science, four Certificates from Harvard University and a certificate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in sustainability as part of his Continuing Education Programs.
He has extensive experience in cocoa Certification and is a pioneer of cocoa certification in West Africa.
He has conducted the study on cocoa certification in Côte d’Ivoire on behalf of the Comité de gestion café/cacao under the umbrella of the Minister of Agriculture.
He is the CEO of a Global business consulting company and vice president of a Global business Group based in the United States.
David Guba Kpelle
Programme Director, Africa Cocoa Coalition
David Guba Kpelle is the Programme Director for Africa Cocoa Coalition, a group of NGOs and Farmer Organizations actively advocating for sustainable cocoa production, farmers’ welfare and equitable returns for actors within the cocoa value chain in Africa.
He is a conservation biologist with working experience in sustainable agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in forest ecosystems. He has worked with the FAO, Ghana Forestry Commission and Conservation International. From 2005 to 2008, he was the Program Manager in charge of the World Wide Fund for Nature West Africa Program Office (WWF-WARPO). Since 2007, David Kpelle has been actively involved with multi-stakeholder initiatives on sustainable cocoa production at national and international levels, particularly with ICCO and WCF.
Under his leadership, ACC, in collaboration with Ghana’s Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), Oxfam-Novib and Tropical Commodities Coalition (TCC-Netherlands), organized the first National Roundtable on Sustainable Cocoa Economy (NRSCE) in Ghana in 2010.
Other activities of ACC include the strengthening of cocoa farmers’ organizations and advocating for farmers’ welfare and gender equity and women’s empowerment in the cocoa sector.
Executive Director, ISEAL Alliance
A leading expert on credible standards, Karin Kreider has worked in large-scale partnerships with producer groups, multinational companies, governmental and intergovernmental agencies, and with international and local NGOs.
As ISEAL’s Scaling Up Director from 2009-2012, she led ISEAL’s strategy to increase the impact and uptake of sustainability standards globally. She currently manages the flagship ISEAL-SECO project to improve public procurement practices around the world and support emerging economy leaders in Brazil, India and China to achieve sustainability goals in their countries through the use of high quality standards.
Prior to joining ISEAL in 2009, Karin was a member of the senior leadership team at Rainforest Alliance, including roles as Deputy Director and later based in its Costa Rica office as Director of the Rainforest Alliance Sustainable Agriculture Programme and the Sustainable Agriculture Network.
She holds a BFA and an MBA, both from New York University. She is based in ISEAL’s London office.
Vice President, Sustainability, Barry Callebaut Global Sourcing & Cocoa / Managing Director Biolands
Daudi Lelijveld (1959) was appointed Vice President Sustainability for Barry Callebaut Global Sourcing & Cocoa and Managing Director of Biolands in December 2012.
Prior to joining Barry Callebaut Daudi had a career with Cargill for 19 years in various roles in the commodities sectors, including commodity broking in his early years, and seven years with Cargill Sugar as their asset portfolio manager. This resulted in the buildup of 13 joint venture partnerships across four continents, where Daudi served on the board as Cargill's representative and in some cases as the project manager for the building of some of the joint venture assets, namely a one-million tonne $100 million sugar refinery in Homs, Syria and another in Kakinada, India.
It was during his tenure in sugar that Daudi served as the Chairman for what was then BSI (Better Sugar Initiative) - now Bonsucro, and it was during this period that Daudi helped navigate and drive the multi-stakeholder round table through delivering the first fully metric certified cane sugars.
Daudi also has extensive Africa experience including 10 years working on the continent, initially as a well-side geologist and then later running a fleet of 60 trucks for a logistics company servicing the landlocked country of Malawi from ports as far afield as Dar-es-Salaam and Durban.
Daudi Lelijveld holds a Joint Honours Bachelor of Science Degree in Biology and Geology from the UK and he also undertook Masters Studies in Finance at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
CEO of FLO-CERT GmbH
Rüdiger Meyer established FLO-CERT 2003 as the pioneering international certification scheme for Fairtrade. Within three years, FLO-CERT has grown to be one of the world’s leading social certification bodies, operating in more than 70 countries around the globe, certifying a retail value of approx. US$2 billion. FLO-CERT is rapidly expanding, working now with over 20 different product lines covering both food and non-food products.
Previously, Rüdiger ran his own consultant agency for more than six years, focusing on international projects connecting business, ethics and development. He also brings senior management experience in Fairtrade supply chain management and product development.
Rüdiger studied Business, Law and Organizational Development in Germany, Switzerland and Brazil and holds a master’s degree in Sociology from the University of Bielefeld.
Since 2012 Rüdiger is also a member of ISEAL’s Board of Directors.
Senior Manager, Sustainability Initiatives, The Hershey Company
Ray Major is responsible for meeting Hershey’s global requirements for certified cocoa and managing their sustainability initiatives in producer countries. He also manages Hershey’s crop forecasting program in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire.
Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Ray has a degree in Biological Sciences from Drexel University and began his career in the chocolate industry in 1977. Since then he has worked for several major manufacturers and has been fortunate to make chocolate on five continents. He joined The Hershey Company in 1997, where he has held various technical positions in support of chocolate manufacture. Most recently he was in charge of cocoa sourcing and product development for Hershey’s Artisan Confections, where he traveled extensively in producing countries and managed cocoa programs to improve quality and productivity. Before that he lived in Brazil, where he managed Hershey’s manufacturing operations.
Manager West Africa, Sustainable Landscapes, Rainforest Alliance
Christian Mensah holds a Master of Science in Agricultural Sciences, Food Security and Natural Resource Management in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics from the University of Hohenheim in Germany. During his studies in Germany, Christian enrolled and passed a distance education course in computerized small business management from Education Direct, USA.
He is also a graduate from the University of Cape Coast with a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture.
He worked as an agricultural officer at the Ministry of Food and Agriculture in Ghana to train agricultural extension agents for the sector in the country.
He has been representing Rainforest Alliance in Agro Eco-Louis Bolk Institute since 2008 when he joined the institute.
Jonas Mva Mva
Senior Cocoa Program Manager, IDH
Born under a cocoa tree in 1956 in Cameroon, Mr. Mva Mva achieved an MBA in Law and Economics from the University of Yaoundé, Cameroon.
He took Many training courses in Europe and the US and has expertise in Adult Training, project development / implementation / evaluation and programme management.
He was Project Manager and Acting Country Representative with Catholic Relief Services for 12 years, working on rural development projects in Central Africa (Chad, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic)
He has also been Country Director of INADES Formation in Cameroon, focussed on adult education, agricultural training and rural development over a two-year period
He opened a national development NGO called ODECO (Organisme de Developpment d’Etude de formation et de Conseil) in Cameroon and served as Program Manager for 10 years.
He was Country Representative for STCP (Sustainable Tree Crops Program) in Cameroon for 10 years. The Program was set up by the cocoa industry and the WCF to improve cocoa farmers GAP (good agricultural practices) and livelihoods.
General Manager of the National Cocoa and Coffee Board of Cameroon
Michael Ndoping, General Manager of the National Cocoa and Coffee Board of Cameroon, is holder of two Bachelor degrees, in Law and Accountancy.
He has served in various senior administrative positions within the Public Administration of Cameroon, essentially with the Ministry of Finance and the Presidency of the Republic of Cameroon, before his appointment in 2006 to the position of head of National Cocoa and Coffee Board.
He has led the Cameroon Delegation to various international meetings on cocoa and coffee, and is currently Vice Chairman of the International Cocoa Council.
Dr. Juliane Reinecke
Associate Professor of Organizational Behaviour at Warwick Business School
Dr. Juliane Reinecke is Associate Professor of Organizational Behaviour at Warwick Business School and part of the Industrial Relations Research Unit at the University of Warwick, UK. She received her Ph.D from the Judge Business School, University of Cambridge.
Her research interests include social and environmental standards, transnational governance and social movements, focusing on how organizational and political processes shape notions of value, fairness, sustainability and responsibility in markets.
Juliane is a member of the editorial board of Organization Studies and her work has been published in Human Resource Management, Organization Studies, Organization, and Ecological Economics.
She currently holds an Early Career Research Fellowship funded by the Independent Social Research Foundation (ISRF) and her research project explores how governmental actors, civil society and industry actors work together to produce transnational governance addressing human rights issues in conflict zones, with a particular focus on the case of conflict minerals.
Chair of CEN Committee 415 on sustainable and traceable cocoa
Currently the Director/Owner of Maverix, based in the Amsterdam area of the Netherlands, where he serves as a consultant to businesses, public authorities and other organisations, as well as facilitator to groups or to group processes by preparing, chairing or supporting (temporary or permanent) organisations, conferences, committees, panels, debates, events etc. The first set of activities focus on sustainable cocoa and on coffee. Other fields of expertise include port policy, (European) transport policy, synchro - and co-modality, logistics and infrastructure policy.
He is also Chair of CEN Committee 415 on sustainable and traceable cocoa, which is developing a CEN and ISO standard for sustainable and traceable cocoa in cooperation between cocoa producers and cocoa consumers.
At the same time, he is Secretary General of the European Warehousekeepers Federation, the Federation of European associations of soft commodity warehousekeepers.
He has been Director of Ondernemersvereniging ORAM, Regional Business Association, Industry Federation for Amsterdam Seaports, Platform for Creative Industry, and Industry Knowledge Centre for environmental, labour and external risks.
Jack has also been a Member of Amsterdamse Raad voor de Stadsontwikkeling, and participated in the debate on spatial planning in Amsterdam and contributed to the position of the Amsterdamse Raad on spatial planning issues.
As a Transport and Infrastructure specialist, he was involved with non-profit industry group VNO-NCW and prepared and executed VNO-NCW policy in the field of transport and infrastructure. As Director, International relations of the Amsterdam Chamber of Commerce, he was responsible for international trade policy and contributed to the international positioning of the Amsterdam region.
Oliver von Hagen
Market Analyst, International Trade Centre (UN/WTO)
Mr Oliver von Hagen is Market Analyst at the International Trade Centre (UN/WTO) in Geneva, Switzerland. His work focusses on export promotion, export strategy development, sustainable supply chains, sustainability standards and their impacts on international trade.
Oliver holds a Master in Business Administration and Communication from the Free University of Berlin and received additional education from INSEAD Business School and Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.
He has published numerous academic, peer reviewed papers in reputable journals and a wide range of practitioner-oriented articles.
Mr. Wunderlich is coordinator of the Sustainable Commodity Initiative (SCI), a program of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the International Institute for Sustainable Development. The SCI promotes the development of sustainable production and trade by focusing on market-based sustainable standards programs and promoting partnerships to increase knowledge on impacts of sustainability approach, and the coordinated delivery of support services (financial, technical assistance, market information etc.). Mr. Wunderlich focuses mainly on the SCI’s Sustainable Commodity Assistance Network, a global platform for technical assistance in sustainable agriculture. As well, he is the co-coordinator of the recently established UN Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards (UNFSS), guided by five UN bodies to provide an information and decision making dialogue platform for key decision makers in developing countries.
Mr. Wunderlich has worked for over 18 years in sustainable development, first as the director of a grassroots, environmental education program in Guatemala (5 years); then as the network coordinator of the Sustainable Agriculture Network for the Rainforest Alliance, and more recently as economic analyst for UNCTAD. He has done numerous independent consultant activities focusing on market-based approaches to sustainability. In that capacity he helped introduce the FairTrade label into Spain and has conducted many consulting projects; including for the World Bank--risk assessment and sustainability strategies, Technoserve, several certification programs and strategic support on sustainability to several industry groups.
Mr. Wunderlich has a Masters in Environmental Sciences with a focus on international development technologies. He is based in Barcelona, Spain.
Britta Wyss Bisang
Standards Director, Utz Certified
Britta is UTZ Certified’s Standards Director, responsible for the development of the UTZ standards, the certification management as well as the monitoring and evaluation of the program. She is a member of the UTZ Executive Team and the ISEAL Board of Directors.
Britta holds a Masters Degree in environmental sciences with a focus on soil science and risk management and has in-depth experience in various sustainability standard systems, having previously worked for a certification body as department head, auditor, certification officer and trainer for internal management systems for group certification.
She is an expert in including social, environmental and economic criteria in sustainable value chain approaches and is particularly interested in how to make these work for all types of farming communities and the mainstream market.